Fayolism is one of the first comprehensive statement of a general theory of management, developed by the French management theorist Henri Fayol (1841–1925): one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.
Fayol has proposed that there are five primary functions of management: (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) commanding, (4) coordinating, and (5) controlling (Fayol, 1949, 1987). Controlling is described in the sense that a manager must receive feedback on a process in order to make necessary adjustments.
Fayol's work has stood the test of time and has been shown to be relevant and appropriate to contemporary management. Many of today’s management texts including Daft (2005) have reduced the five functions to four: (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) leading, and (4) controlling. Daft's text is organized around Fayol's four functions.
The 6 types of Operations
For Fayol any Organisation can be subdivided into 6 types of Operations. Each Operation being fulfilled by its corresponding Essential Function:
In 1925 six month before Henri Fayol’s death Verney helped Fayol redefine The function of administration (Administration Industrielle et Generale).
The old definition went as follows: The activities involved in businesses can all be classified under one of the following six headings: TECHNICAL, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, SECURITY, ACCOUNTING, ADMINISTRATIVE organization, command, coordination and control). Compared with the new definition: The activities involved in businesses can all be classified under one of the following five headings: TECHNICAL, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, SECURITY, ACCOUNTING These activities must be planned, organized, directed, coordinated and controlled, in a word: administered. The removal of the distinction between management and administration and the re-definition of administration, it appears that Fayol had finally synthesized these two concepts. Therefore the previous difficulties with this distinction no longer exist(Breeze, J., & Miner Jr., F.).
The 9 Levels
Fayol was representing an organisation like a living body (« corps social », ie. "social body") with main organs hierarchically structured as follow:
The 5 Elements of Administration
The word Control clearly provoked some misunderstanding by English-readers because its 1st meaning in French is "to check" and its 2nd meaning is "to have a grip over". And it is the other way round in English. So for the French-reader Fayol clearly meant "Check everything!".
For Fayol, "The Art of Commanding relies upon certain personal qualities and upon the knowledge of management general principles. (...) It has, like all other arts, its degrees. (...) The manager in charge of a commandment must:
The 14 Principles of Administration
Fayol suggested that it is important to have unity of command: a concept that suggests there should be only one supervisor for each person in an organization. Like Socrates, Fayol suggested that management is a universal human activity that applies equally well to the family as it does to the corporation.
The 16 Management Duties of the Organisation
The 7 Qualities
The 7 qualities he was expecting from managers were:
For the Top Managing Director, the 7th quality was "the broadest skills in the dedicated activity of the organisation".
For example, if the organisation was a car manufacturer, the top Director must have the largest possible knowledge about the manufacturing of cars. This was suggesting that this Director would have to be probably a former car manufacturing engineer.
Managers need the ability to perform the elements of Management but they also need abilities in the Technical, commercial, financial, security, and Accounting areas of the enterprise. Managerial Ability became more important as he moves up to upper level management. Fayol's ideas inspired a number of individuals to teach and Write about management(Wren).